Upper and stitching done, time to think about the shanks. Shanks are the part of the shoe that support the foot arch. They stretch between the heel and the metatarsus, and as such they are a crucial part of the shoe. Bespoke shoes can provide super comfortable yet extremely supportive shanks made of leather, where typical ready-to-wear footwear is made with rather rigid shanks, that are made of wood.
Bespoke shoe making